The Effects of Voltage Variations on AC Motors
Motors will run at the voltage variations already mentioned. This does not imply such operation will comply with industry standards of capacity, temperature rise, or normally anticipated service life. Figure 7-34 shows general effects. Such effects are not guaranteed for specific motors.
The temperature rise and performance characteristics of motors sealed within hermetic compressor shells constitute a special case. These motors are cooled by return suction gas of varying quantity and temperature. Thus, Fig. 7-34 is not necessarily applicable to this specialized type of equipment.
The chart shows the approximate effect of voltage variations on motor characteristics. The reference base of voltage and frequency is understood to be that shown on the nameplate of the motor.
Some of the terms used in the chart are explained here.
Normal slip = synchronous speed − the rating plate speed
Slip in the graph indicates the change in normal slip. Synchronous speeds for 60-Hz motors are
2-pole—3600 r/min or rpm
4-pole—1800 r/min or rpm
6-pole—1200 r/min or rpm
8-pole—900 r/min or rpm
Table 7-3 indicates the voltage drop that may be anticipated for various ampere flow rates through copper conductors of different gage size. Figure 7-33 provides the same data in graphic form.
These data are applicable to both single-phase and three-phase circuits. In each case, the wire length equals twice the distance from the power distribution panel to the appliance terminals, measured along the path of the conductors. This is twice the distance between B and C in Fig. 7-32, measured along the path of the conductors. For motorized appliances, particularly those that start under loaded conditions, the voltage at the appliance terminals should not drop more than 10 percent below rating plate values unless approved by the manufacturer.
Thus, the voltage drop permissible in the load leads must anticipate any reduction below rated voltage that may be suffered under full load conditions at the point of power source connection (point A in Fig. 7-32).
Troublesome voltage losses may also occur elsewhere if electrical joints or splices are mechanically imperfect and create unanticipated resistance. Such connections may exist in the distribution panel, the meter socket, or even where outdoor power drops are clamped to the feeder lines on poles. Where there is a wide variation between no-load voltage and operating voltage, sources of voltage drop can be determined by taking voltmeter readings at various points in the circuit. These points might be ahead of the meter, after the circuit disconnect switch, at the appliance terminals, and at other locations.