Diesel Engine Injector Pump Timing
Injection pumps have two provisions for synchronizing fuel delivery with piston movement. Timing marks on the drive gears establish the basic relationship. Elongated mounting-bolt holes, which allow the pump body to be rotated a few degrees, provide the fine adjustment. Reference marks stamped on the pump body and mounting flange enable the adjustment to be replicated (Fig. 5-14).
Before removing a pump, bar the engine over until both valves on No. 1 cylinder close and the timing mark on the harmonic balancer or flywheel aligns with its pointer. This procedure indexes pump-gear timing marks for easy assembly. If the same pump is reinstalled, the reference marks on the pump body and flange should be valid. Substituting another pump puts the marks into question and the engine should be retimed, either statically or dynamically.
Static timing procedures vary enormously, but the purpose of the exercise is to synchronize the onset of fuel delivery with the piston in No. 1 cylinder. Depending upon engine make, model, and application, fuel should begin to flow anywhere from 8–220 btdc as the flywheel is barred over by hand.
Flywheels for small utility engines generally have two marks inscribed on their rims: one representing tdc and the other, always in advance of the first, indicating when fuel should begin to flow from No. 1 delivery valve. A convenient way to monitor fuel flow is to make up an adapter out of a length of clear plastic tubing and a delivery-valve fitting, as shown in Fig. 5-15. The mechanic slowly bars the engine over, while watching for the slightest rise in the fuel level. The onset of fuel movement should occur at the moment the timing mark aligns with its pointer. If tdc is passed and the plunger retreats, the flywheel must be turned back 15 degree or so to absorb gear lash, and the operation repeated.
Drive gears for Navistar (International) DT358 and its cousins have six timing marks. Which one to use depends upon the engine model and application. In a reversal of traditional practice, certain American Bosch pumps time to the end, rather than the onset, of fuel delivery. The delivery valve, which acts as a check valve, for No. 1 plunger must be disabled before timing.
Timing specifications for distributor pumps are often expressed in thousandths of an inch of plunger movement from bdc. Figure 5-16 illustrates the dial-indicator adapter that replaces the central bolt in the distributor head. Locating bdc—the precise moment when the plunger pauses at the bottom of its stroke—requires patience. Once bdc is found, the mechanic zeros the gauge and bars the engine over in the normal direction of rotation to the appropriate crankshaft or harmonic-balancer mark. He then rotates the pump body as necessary to match lift with the published specification.
Dynamic timing, made with a strobe light while the engine ticks over at slow idle, compensates for pump-gear wear and other variables. It is the only way that van and other inaccessible engines can be timed.
The Sun timing light draws power from a wall outlet or, if equipped with an inverter, from the engine’s 12-V or 24-V batteries (Fig. 5-17). A transducer clamps over No. 1 fuel line to trigger the strobe when the injector opens and the sudden drop in fuel pressure contracts the line. The instrument also tracks how many crankshaft degrees the timing advances as engine speed increases.
Unit injectors (UIs), which integrate the pump function with injection, are timed as described below.