Oil Burner Nozzles

By 18 August 2014

An oil burner nozzle is a device designed to deliver a fixed amount of fuel to the combustion chamber in a uniform spray pattern and spray angle best suited to the requirements of a specific burner. The oil burner nozzle atomizes the fuel oil (i.e., breaks it down into extremely small droplets) so that the vaporization necessary for combustion can be accomplished more quickly.

The components in a typical nozzle (see Figure 1-30) include the following:

1. Orifice.
2. Swirl chamber.
3. Orifice disc.
4. Body.
5. Tangential slots.
6. Distributor.
7. Retainer.
8. Filter.

Fuel oil is supplied under pressure (100 psi) to the nozzle, where it is converted to velocity energy in the swirl chamber by directing it through a set of tangential slots. The centrifugal force caused within the swirl chamber drives the fuel oil against the chamber walls, producing a core of air in the center. The latter effect moves the oil out through the orifice at the tip of the nozzle in a coneshaped pattern.

The following are the two basic spray cone patterns:

1. The hollow cone.
2. The solid cone.

Each has certain advantages depending on its use.

The hollow cone pattern (see Figure 1-31) is recommended for use in smaller burners (those firing 1.00 gph and under). As shown in Figure 1-31, they are characterized by a concentration of fuel oil droplets all around the outer edge of the spray. There is little or no distribution of droplets in the center of the cone. The principal advantage of the hollow cone patterns is a more stable spray pattern and angle under adverse conditions than solid cone patterns operating under the same conditions and at the same flow rate.

The solid cone pattern, illustrated in Figure 1-32, is characterized by a uniform or near-uniform distribution of fuel oil droplets throughout the cone pattern. Nozzles producing this cone pattern are particularly recommended for smoother ignition in oil burners firing above 2.00 or 3.00 gph. They are also recommended where long fires are required or where the air pattern or the oil burner is heavy in the center.

A combination cone pattern that is neither a true cone nor a true hollow cone can be used in oil burners firing between 0.40 gph and 8.00 gph.

Oil burner nozzles are also selected on the basis of the spray angle they produce (see Figure 1-33). The spray angle refers to the angle of the spray cone, and this angle will generally range from 30° to 90°. The angle selected will depend on the requirement of the burner air pattern and combustion chamber. For example, 70° to 90° spray angles are recommended for round or square combustion chambers (see Figure 1-34), and 30° to 60° spray angles are recommended for long, narrow chambers (see Figure 1-35). Recommended combustion chamber dimensions and spray angles for nozzles are given in Table 1-4.